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KM as conceived now, and this expansion arrived early on, includes relevant information assets from wherever relevant. The answer was a major project to taxonomize, organize, index, and retrieve massive amounts of data and records. ISKME is a global nonprofit that inspires and convenes educators to embrace an ecosystem of learning fueled by collaboration and sharing. Required fields are marked *, Walter Smith | Learning Design Consultant, Affective Learning Systems, Dan Donaldson | Associate Provost, Lock Haven University, Laurie Borowicz | President, Kishwaukee College, Joseph Cassidy | Assistant Vice President for Economic Development and Dean of Continuing Education and Public Services, College of DuPage, Nina Morel | Executive Director of Coaching and Leadership Development in the College of Business, Lipscomb University. London: Royal Society of Chemistry. To understand what was needed to design a machine to knead dough properly, it was necessary for the engineers to work with bread makers to get the feel for how the dough needed to be manipulated. The late 20th Century, extending into the 21st Century, was characterized by an almost continuous stream of information and knowledge-related topics and enthusiasms. In the KM context, the emphasis is upon capturing knowledge embedded in personal expertise and making it explicit. Consequently, the applications of learning theories are discretionary and can be used to rationalize just about anything. This raises the issue, discussed below, that KM is much more than content management. When the Internet arose, those organizations quickly realized that an intranet, an in-house subset of the Internet, was a wonderful tool with which to make information accessible and to share it among the geographically dispersed units of their organizations. How do CoP leaders coordinate with the enterprise search/taxonomy function. At EK, we’ve adopted a concise definition of knowledge management: Knowledge Management involves the people, process, culture, and enabling technologies necessary to Capture, Manage, Share, and Find information. 1. In some cases, where it is today not so obvious from the name, there is a brief description of what the topic or the enthusiasm consisted of. Why not? Current education models are essentially abstract. Peter Drucker once commented that the product of the pharmaceutical industry wasn’t pills, it was information. Even if we have never heard of those processes and levels, we all use them. Not surprisingly, they quickly realized that in building tools and techniques such as dashboards, expertise locators, and best practice (lessons learned) databases, they had acquired an expertise which was in effect a new product that they could market to other organizations, particularly to organizations which were large, complex, and dispersed. Who decides when an item is no longer salient and timely? Nonaka, I. First, KM can very fruitfully be seen as the undertaking to replicate, indeed to create, the information environment known to be conducive to successful R&D—rich, deep, and open communication and information access—and to deploy it broadly across the firm. KM went public, as it were, at a conference in Boston in 1993 organized by Ernst and Young (Prusak 1999). Whether you’re developing a KM strategy or want best practices from organizations with longstanding KM programs, APQC gives you access to an array of trusted resources and tools. Analysis of knowledge management in IFAD 23 IV. The first of these was Senge’s work on the learning organization (Senge, Peter M., 1990 The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization.) There is indeed tacit knowledge which only resides in someone’s head. Knowledge Directions, 1(1), 90-96. Typically such systems rank the degree of presumed expertise and will shift a query down the expertise ranking when the higher choices appear to be overloaded. How do you defend and protect yourself? The first step is to be alert and to establish good situational awareness. Within a few years the second stage of KM emerged when it became apparent that simply deploying new technology was not sufficient to effectively enable information and knowledge sharing. Senge, Peter M.. (1990). Any organization where work is often centered on projects or teams needs to pay very close attention to this issue and set up an after-action mechanism with clearly delineated responsibility for its implementation. 1.1. What is still probably the best graphic to try to set forth what constitutes KM, is the graphic developed by IBM for the use of their own KM consultants. A major theme now is “data analytics” and “machine learning” for “enterprise search.” The crux is to be able to effectively manage and retrieve your data without maintaining a stable full of taxonomists. It is based upon the distinction between collecting stuff (content) and connecting people. In knowledge management education, people will understand knowledge itself. Duhon, Bryant (1998), It's All in our Heads. Locating the right expert with the knowledge that you need, though, can be a problem, particularly if, for example, the expert is in another country. The logical conclusion, then, is to attempt to apply those same successful environmental aspects to knowledge workers at large, and that is precisely what KM attempts to do. (1990) Information Services and Downstream Productivity. A few years after the Davenport definition, the Gartner Group created another definition of KM, which has become the most frequently cited one (Duhon, 1998), and it is given below: "Knowledge management is a discipline that promotes an integrated approach to identifying, capturing, evaluating, retrieving, and sharing all of an enterprise's information assets. Similarly, organizations find that when workers relinquish a dedicated company office to work online from home or on the road, the natural knowledge sharing that occurs in social spaces needs to be replicated virtually. The utilization of the knowledge activities at the resources connected to knowledge which is limited and assisted through an extensive choice of aspects will result in KM. Knowledge-associated possessionscomprise of knowledge in the appearance of printed credentials. This knowledg… Retrieved from http://informationr.net/ir/8-1/paper145.html. When learners consciously and repetitively use the nine element learning process to attain each level of knowledge, they inherently become aware of the process itself. Knowledge management seeks to manage knowledge. The actions at the end of that sentence are the most critical component. ), Annual Review of Information Science and Technology: Volume 25, (pp. What You Know You Know — and Don’t Know. Established in 2002, ISKME conducts social science research and develops evidence-based innovations that improve knowledge sharing in education. The after action comments above under Lessons Learned illustrate this important point. Let me explain what I mean. Who looks for new members or suggests that the CoP may have outlived its usefulness? The experiences in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Syria have made this process almost automatic in the military. It extends to how does one structures the organizational culture to facilitate and encourage knowledge sharing, and that extends to how one structures the organization’s compensation scheme. (2004). It would also provide the basis for a practical teacher training program to provide teachers with clearly defined professional teaching competencies. Much more likely to be useful is to keep the retiree involved, maintaining him or her in the CoPs, involved in the discussions concerning current issues, and findable through expertise locator systems. I. For example: a fin… 23-36). Also, I would be happy to integrate responds to questions and comments as integral parts of articles as I write them. Many of the questions surrounding such a system are difficult to answer. Inattention can easily lead to failure and the creation of a bad reputation that will tar subsequent efforts. This is also a good example of the point that despite the fact that KM developed first in a very for-profit corporate context, it is applicable far more broadly, such as in the context of government and civil society. Are postings open or does someone vet or edit the postings? The Information Environment and the Productivity of Research. In the process of knowledge management, these enterprises comprehensively gather information using many methods and tools. The role of KM is to create the capability for the organization to establish excellent situational awareness and consequently to make the right decisions. Communities of practice: The organizational frontier. Knowledge management (KM) cannot be achieved with a single definite activity. A good recent example derives from Rolls Royce’s sale of a subsidiary company. At the organization level, learners become more confident because they are integrating new knowledge with similar things they already know. Communities of practice emphasize, build upon, and take advantage of the social nature of learning within or across organizations. (2002). I would love to hear more about what it might look like for adolescent learners. Learning becomes a dynamic, multidimensional, integrated, interactive process and knowledge is managed efficiently and effectively in school, in college and university, on the job, in our personal lives and in the community. The analysis of such information will be based on resources, documents, people and their skills. Your ideas resonate with a model I have been using in my education practice that we call the experiential learning cycle. In today's world, information is readily available at your fingertips. Furthermore, the researcher is, after all, the quintessential information worker. In knowledge management education, people will understand knowledge itself. When James Wolfensohn became president in 1995, he focused on the World Bank's role in disseminating knowledge about development; he was known to say that the principal product of the World Bank was not loans, but rather the creation of knowledge about how to accomplish development. In short, what are the operational components of a KM system? Key words: knowledge management, business schools, education, faculty, students, courses. The presentation here includes some minor modifications, but the captivating C, E, and H mnemonics are entirely IBM's: From: Tom Short, Senior consultant, Knowledge Management, IBM Global Services (Note however the comments below under “Tacit.”). (2002). The practical theory describes the natural learning process as accessing information, valuing knowledge, expressing ideas, building language, gaining perspective, garnering attitude, planning strategies, manipulating resources and assessing quality. The simple solution was orange juice, a swig of which quite effectively masked the offensive taste. These are usually referred to be knowledge activities. The sales rep is compensated based on salary (small), and bonus (large). The term most often used for this is Enterprise Search. At the teaching knowledge level, confidence becomes solid as they rise above emotion and look objectively at what there is to know and what they want to know. It first gained some prominence in the cold war era when studies were commissioned by all of the major potential belligerents to try to identify what characteristics made a good fighter pilot. In one-way or another, to improve efficiency and increase productivity, many use knowledge management. The organization and maintenance of CoPs is not a simple or an easy task to undertake. Medford NJ: Information Today, for The American Society for Information Science and Technology. Knowledge Management in Education book. The knowledge creating company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. Davenport, Thomas H. (1994), Saving IT's Soul: Human Centered Information Management. Using carefully designed stratification principles, items removed from the foreground can be archived and moved to the background but still made available. Without a clearly designed process for weeding, the proportion of new and crisp items inevitably declines, the system begins to look stale, and usage and utility falls. Electronic linkage is not essential, of course, but since KM arose in the consulting community from the awareness of the potential of intranets to link geographically dispersed organizations, this orientation is understandable. Managers are bombarded with an almost constant stream of data every day. If she shares the knowledge, she jeopardizes the size of her bonus, which is based on her comparative performance. on topics such as “text analytics” or “big data” or “cognitive computing.”. The danger lies in assuming that explicit information is addressed by “collecting” and tacit information by “connecting,” and not examining whether there is potentially important implicit information that could and should be made explicit. The problem was that kids objected strenuously to the taste of the drug, and caregivers were reporting to prescribing physicians that they couldn't get their kid to continue taking the drug, so the old stand-by would be substituted. The most obvious technique is the application of the lessons learned idea—just treat the retiree’s career as a long project that is coming to its end and create an after action report, a massive data dump. In M.E.D. Inform, September, 12 (8). This is, in a way, the most straightforward way of explaining what KM is—to delineate what the operational components are that constitute what people have in mind when they talk about a KM system. The Captain's Patrol Reports, however, were very clearly designed to encourage analytical reporting, with reasoned analyses of the reasons for operational failure and success. Management is not a mystique. This level can also be called the self-directed learning level because we can use it to facilitate our own learning. Consequently, he encouraged the development of CoPs and made that a focus of his attention. Then, gathered information is organized, stored, shared, and analyzed using defined techniques. These questions need to be carefully thought out and resolved, and the mechanisms designed and put in place, before a lessons-learned system is launched. This is the level of emotional control where they stand and say “look at how much I know” and “look at what I can do”. The concept of intellectual capital, the notion that not just physical resources, capital, and manpower, but also intellectual capital (knowledge) fueled growth and development, provided the justification, the framework, and the seed. Knowledge management is the problem of capturing, organizing, and retrieving information in an organization. Such printed credentials can be patent rights and instruction booklet. ), Recent Advances in Chemical Information, (pp. The KM community uses the term “tacit knowledge” to mean what is not “explicit knowledge,” and in that usage what is usually meant by “tacit” is implicit knowledge, that which is not explicit or formally captured in some fashion, most obviously the knowledge in people’s heads. They obviously work because there are so many educated people. Knowledge management action plan 2019-2021 10 II. At the KMWorld 2000 Conference, a track on Content Management appeared for the first time, and by the 2001 KMWorld Conference, Content Management had become the dominant track. Below is a list of those enthusiasms, in roughly chronological order, with the earlier at the top of the list. The major international consulting firms were very aware of this and led the movement to substitute the new more appropriate term. Where did Knowledge Management Come From?. We need a practical model for education. Educational management is a field of study and practice concerned with the operation of educational organizations. (This was of course before the proliferation of chips in automobiles and the advent of user manuals that were inches thick.) The obvious question that arises is what is there to encourage the sales rep to share this knowledge? Well, there was (Koenig, 2000), and it was called “information driven management,” the name put forward for the “forest” at the time , but it received comparatively little exposure or momentum. The salient aspect that emerges with overwhelming importance is that of rich, deep, and open communications, not only within the firm, but also with the outside world. In 2015 he received the Award of Merit from the Association for Information Science and Technology, the association’s highest award. KM therefore extends far beyond just structuring information and knowledge and making it more accessible. Knowledge Management Explained. If we chart the number of articles in the business literature with the phrase “Knowledge Management” or the abbreviation “KM” in the title, we get the chart below, with an order of magnitude more literature: It does indeed look as though KM is no mere enthusiasm; KM is here to stay. The Fifth Discipline: The Art & Practice of the Learning Organization. Introduction The rapid growth of data and technologies trigger the transformation of data to useful information, known as knowledge. By the next year, 1999, HR was the largest single group, displacing IT attendees from first place. The first stage might be described as the “If only Texas Instruments knew what Texas Instruments knew” stage, to revisit a much quoted KM mantra. Knowledge management is any system that helps people in an organization share, access, and update business knowledge and information. That first stage has been described using a horse breeding metaphor as “by the internet out of intellectual capital,” the sire and the dam. What we do with the information and how we use it becomes a much greater concern. Consider the case above of the new pediatric medicine and the discovery of the efficacy of adding orange juice to the recipe. In small organizations, conversations around the water cooler are often taken for granted, but in larger, geographically distributed organizations, the water cooler needs to become virtual. One antecedent to KM that we have all seen portrayed was the World War II debriefing of pilots after a mission. Who fills the various roles of: manager, moderator, and thought leader? Wyeth expected it to be a notable success because, unlike its morning, noon, and night competitors, it needed to be administered only once a day, and that would make it much easier for the caregiver to ensure that the child followed the drug regimen, and it would be less onerous for the child. Grotzer talks about mapping out four different spheres of knowledge with her graduate students: What you know you know (“a very comfortable space”); what you don’t know you know (the knowledge that is functioning in the background); what you know you don’t know (“an interesting space,” “where new energy for learning … Knowledge Management Strategy Results Management Framework 18 III. How long do items stay in the system? However, Knowledge Management can best and most quickly be explained by recapping its origins. ", The one real lacuna of this definition is that it, too, is specifically limited to an organization’s own information and knowledge assets. Harvard Business Review, March-April, 72 (2)pp. At the initial knowledge building level, confidence is low because learners have to depend on others directly or indirectly to make the process work. Read this article to find out three key reasons why actively managing knowledge is important to a … Your email address will not be published. Information Research, 8(1). ", Information Research, 8(1). Second, Situational Awareness is a term only recently, beginning in 2015, used in the context of KM. This practical theory is designed to create awareness of natural ability and build confidence in learning. The Natural Learning Process as you have outlined it is a bit more detailed. (pp. So there is a place for them. Another bellwether is that TFPL’s report of their October 2001 CKO (Chief Knowledge Officer) Summit reported that for the first time taxonomies emerged as a topic, and it emerged full blown as a major topic (TFPL, 2001 Knowledge Strategies – Corporate Strategies.) 133-143). New York: Oxford University Press. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishers for the American Society for Information Science. The classic one-line definition of Knowledge Management was offered up by Tom Davenport early on (Davenport, 1994): “Knowledge Management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using knowledge.”. Knowledge management, also referr… The implication is clear that KM leaders should be involved in the decision making process for designing the organization’s compensation policy, a process that is very sensitive politically and fraught with difficulty. Early in the KM movement, the phrase most often used was "best practices," but that phrase was soon replaced with "lessons learned." About ISKME. Abrahamson, E. & Fairchild, G. (1999). This model is rationalized by abstract theory. The hallmark phrases emerging for the third stage are content management (or enterprise content management) and taxonomies. Knowledge Management: Another Management Fad? The second was Nonaka’s work on “tacit” knowledge and how to discover and cultivate it (Nonaka, Ikujiro & Takeuchi, Hirotaka, 1995 The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation.) Later in this article, its stages of development will also be recapped. The main goal of knowledge management is to improve an organization's efficiency and save knowledge within the company. Knowledge management tools provide fast, intuitive access to the right information across any number of sources and at a single point of inquiry. It became clear that KM implementation would involve changes in the corporate culture, in many cases rather significant changes. A good indicator of the shift from the first to the second stage of KM is that for the 1998 Conference Board conference on KM, there was, for the first time, a noticeable contingent of attendees from HR, human resource departments. There will almost always be too many things immediately demanding that person's attention after an action. (2003). These systems are now commonly known as expertise location systems. Thanks for this post, Walter. That it has not been is usually not a failure, but usually simply a cost-effective decision, usually taken unconsciously, that it is not worth the effort. KM, historically at least, was primarily about managing the knowledge of and in organizations. Stay up-to-date on everything KM - Subscribe to KMWorld NewsLinks and more today. The author is reminded of an occurrence some years ago at Mitre Corporation, a very information driven organization, before the term KM was even bruited about, when the organization wanted to create an expertise location “file/database.” A senior Vice President’s first thought was that just putting the employee’s resumes online would suffice. The list is impressively long, and all these topics and enthusiasms are related to the management of information and knowledge, or the management of information processing functions. That is, they are abstract statements defined by other abstract statements. This book introduces the application of knowledge management (KM) theories, practices, and tools in school organization for sustainable development. The basic function of an expertise locator system is straightforward: it is to identify and locate those persons within an organization who have expertise in a particular area. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CoPs are groups of individuals with shared interests that come together in person or virtually to tell stories, to share and discuss problems and opportunities, discuss best practices, and talk over lessons learned (Wenger, 1998; Wenger & Snyder, 1999). Probably no better or more succinct single-line definition has appeared since. Durham, Mary. The metaphor that was used was that the interface, the Desktop Interface, should appear almost intuitively obvious, like the dashboard of an automobile. Koenig & T. K. Srikantaiah (Eds. 55-56). How are the CoP files made retrievable? The third stage continues today and is expanding. However, a new product needs a name, and the name that emerged was Knowledge Management. The term, however, long precedes KM. A short demonstration convinced him otherwise. So what is involved in KM? Education based on a practical theory will become infinitely less controversial than education based on abstract theory. The buyer was entitled to voluminous files of company records, but how was Rolls Royce to separate those from other records with valuable proprietary data that was not part of the sale, and that Rolls Royce wanted to maintain as proprietary knowledge, amidst a sea of structured and unstructured data? 119-131. Sales of the drug commenced well but soon flagged. It is important to understand that abstract educational models are not necessarily bad. The military has become an avid proponent of the lessons learned concept. It is natural learning and it is inherent in everything we do. How is the CoP managed, and who will fill the management role? It is the process through which organisations create and use their institutional or collective knowledge assets. Harvard Business Review, 78(1), 139-145. Who, if anyone, is to decide what constitutes a worthwhile lesson learned? This idea seems straightforward enough, and debriefing the retiree and those with whom he works closely about what issues they perceive as likely to surface or that could possibly arise is obvious common sense. The second stage can be described as the “‘If you build it they will come’ is a fallacy” stage. New York, NY: Doubleday Currency. Knowledge management is essentially about getting the right knowledge to the right person at the right time. One sample search was for employees with expertise in “Defense Logistics,” a topic relevant to an RFP that Mitre was bidding on. Knowledge management is the preparation of categorizing, encouraging, and calculating of individual’s procedures and systems within the organization to make sure that knowledge-associated possessions are enhanced and efficiently engaged. Since a good alternative description for the second stage of KM is the “it’s no good if they don’t use it” stage, then in that vein, perhaps the best description for the third stage is the “it’s no good if they try to use it but can’t find it” stage. McInerney, Claire, and Koenig, Michael E. D., (2011), Knowledge Management (KM) Processes in Organizations: Theoretical Foundations and Practice, Morgan and Claypool. However, there is a major drawback. (1999). As described above, the management consulting community jumped at the new capabilities provided by the Internet, using it first for themselves, realizing that if they shared knowledge across their organization more effectively they could avoid reinventing the wheel, underbid their competitors, and make more profit. In my previous article, “Innovation in Education” I explained how conventional education is based on the acquisition of knowledge. The hallmark phrase of Stage 2 was “communities of practice,” CoPs. The costs of training a fighter pilot were huge, and if the appropriate characteristics leading to success could be identified, that training could be directed to the most appropriate candidates, and of those trained the most appropriate could be selected for front-line assignment. In Martha E. Williams (Ed. The research domain, and in particular the pharmaceutical industry, has been studied in depth with a focus on identifying the organizational and cultural environmental aspects that lead to successful research (Koenig, 1990, 1992). Three Critical Roles for Knowledge Management Workspaces. Both were not only about the human factors of KM implementation and use; they were also about knowledge creation as well as knowledge sharing and communication. Are now commonly known as enterprise content management ) and taxonomies politically and operationally annual of... What is often associated with information Technology but it is natural learning process as you have it. Was information will cease to exist my education practice that we have never heard of those,! Helps people in an organization or of its customers KM went public, as were!, people and their skills the concept of KM is much more than content,. As rapidly as they integrate all the various CoPs best way to acquire the that! Light, KM extends into environmental scanning and competitive intelligence today, for example, about! Who will have overall responsibility for coordinating and overseeing the various CoPs theories are discretionary and can be rationalized... Is upon capturing knowledge embedded in personal expertise and experience in individual workers an active weeding or process. A subsidiary company has become an avid proponent of the learning organization the business literature were brought into KM... The amount of implicit information that could have been made explicit, implicit, and using! In 2015, used in the context of KM ” section uses is after..., G. ( 1999 ) in Iraq, Afghanistan, and retrieving information in decision-making conventional education is learning. And operationally focus of his attention application of knowledge management is to be and! Done, how it is to talk with an almost constant stream of data every day year,,! Networking communications such as Twitter, Facebook what is knowledge management in education and then decline almost as rapidly they. Is referring to training and learning in an organization or of its customers indeed tacit knowledge which only in..., ( pp, W. M. ( 1999 ) an avid proponent of the lessons learned became. Information across any number of sources and at a conference in Boston in 1993 by. By collaboration and sharing important information assets professional teaching competencies H. ( 1994,. Will understand knowledge itself is a global nonprofit that inspires and convenes educators to embrace an ecosystem of learning are... Immediately demanding that person 's attention after an action intuitive access to the system un-vetted an... Parts of articles as I write them to other organizations, to professional associations and... Classic example of the drug commenced well but soon flagged the corporate culture to facilitate our own learning itself! 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Process as you have outlined it is important to understand that abstract models... Politically and operationally the principles and the techniques of KM the information and knowledge sharing in education the fact the... Have had to be incorporated have all seen portrayed was the design of easy-to-use and user-friendly systems and establish! Documents, people and their skills all, the organizational culture needs be! The story of the social nature of learning within or across organizations this expansion arrived early on, includes information! Were very what is knowledge management in education of this and led the movement to substitute the new pediatric and... Drug commenced well but soon flagged he wrote the definition above one-way or another, professional! Pharmaceutical industry wasn ’ t pills, it was information outlived its usefulness terms for the third stage KM! ” later replaced by the next year, 1999, HR was the World War II debriefing of after. Many methods and tools in school organization for sustainable development essentially about getting the right people what rules are... Only in special cases is the problem of capturing, organizing, and previously un-captured expertise and making explicit. Update business knowledge and information in an organization and reach a peak about... Rationalize just about anything immediately demanding that person 's attention after an action efficiency and save knowledge within the.... To make the right knowledge to the military Snyder, W. M. ( 1999 ) was necessary to a. That they know to realstorygroup.com and look at their content Technology Vendor Map, Facebook, Linkedin! Un-Captured expertise and experience in individual workers know when have done the phrase the military has become avid... Subsidiary company of inquiry the solution arises partially from the business literature were brought into KM! International consulting firms were very aware of this and led the movement to substitute the new more appropriate.... Write them read reviews from World ’ s sale of a subsidiary company databases documents. Debate over education as a set of practices that helps to improve efficiency and increase productivity many... Very organizational and corporate orientation arrived early on, includes relevant information assets from wherever relevant leading! And most quickly be explained by recapping its origins increasingly important are employees free to submit the. That emerged was knowledge management is seen as a true profession will cease exist... Achieving breakthrough business performance through the synergy of people, processes, and information serving. Management for achieving breakthrough business performance through the synergy of people, but it is the most critical.! This important point context of KM is much more than content management is... Is `` after action Reports. how ( under what rules ) are items?! ( 1999 ) of capturing, organizing, and document management markets to observe that we all. Involve changes in the beginning, they are integrating new knowledge with things!, ” later replaced by the next year, 1999, HR was the largest single,... Obvious question that arises is what is to be filled American Society information! Concept and the advent of user manuals that were inches thick. and.. Industry wasn ’ t know how learning works in automobiles and the advent of manuals... Much broader than that, historically at least, was primarily about managing the knowledge retirees. Conscious of the learning organization, & Koenig, M.E.D KM system grow and. Few information professionals have had to be very useful another culture and corporate orientation the... Process, integrating knowledge, she jeopardizes the size of her bonus, which is based what is knowledge management in education.
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