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(C) processor chips. These products are designed to execute on standalone machines and utilise the resources of various multimedia players. The non-linear nature of most multimedia titles allows the user to explore areas of interest in a more natural sequence. Specifications are encouraged to change and evolve. This unit traces out the image using a laser which Transfer Detac Corona Corona discharges the static electricity on portions of Wire Wire the drum. The problem was further exacerbated with the widespread use of personal computers and the Internet. Compare the sentences written by each student. (Incidentally Tim Berners-Lee, the originator of the Web, is currently the director of W3C). Discuss. NPP10: Sensitive Information - requires your consent when an organisation collects sensitive information about you such as health information, or information about your racial or ethnic background, or criminal record. Static RAM (SRAM) is able to hold a particular binary state without need for recharging. A balance must be found between cost and quality. Would such a watch have an operating system? In Australia, we express dates using currency, times and dates to be altered. Without Fred’s knowledge, the teacher posts the template on the Internet where other teachers download and use the product. Modern sound cards can usually be used for sound input and output simultaneously. Screens Information destined for the screen is received by the video system via the system bus. The frequency determines the pitch and the amplitude determines the volume. • communication links such as a local area network or the Internet • actuators that perform some mechanical operation. Year 11 high school students. least one such package. The SAR then resets its counter and the whole process is repeated. Computer software -- Development -- Study and teaching (Secondary) Computer software -- Development. Most devices communicate with the operating system using: (A) a user (B) a GUI. In most cases the order of statements is of little or no significance. (A) Consistent placement of screen elements. When a red dot is required on the screen the red electron gun fires electrons at the red phosphors. Consider the following: The controllers within most monitors (including LCD, plasma and CRT based monitors) are able to generate 256 different levels of electrical current corresponding to each 8-bit binary colour value received from the video card. GROUP TASK Discussion Fred deliberately chose the end user approach for the development of the mark book. Increased awareness of the audience, including minority cultures and religions, is a vital step in developing culturally inclusive software. (C) be ‘user friendly.’ (D) all of the above. Yahoo first appeared in 1994. Outline privacy issues arising from the use of these sites. Why are intellectual property rights of particular concern in regard to software compared to other physical products? These concepts are further developed in a software development context using a range of practical and commercial examples. Unix which is available for many computers from PCs up to mainframes. GROUP TASK Activity Consider either your home or classroom computer as a system. What techniques could you use to assist you in answering questions such as those listed above? 2. The cathode in a CRT is a heated filament that is similar to the filament in a light globe. Janine Fendall has worked tirelessly during the entire writing and publishing process. Materials that Fig 2.52 include these elements and that can be magnetised are Magnetic forces move from known as ferromagnetic materials. Identify differences between each of these categories. Now in its second edition, Environmental Engineering: Fundamentals, Sustainability, Design by Mihelcic and Zimmerman has evolved from the traditional approach centered on describing, characterizing, quantifying, and monitoring current environmental problems to one that is focused on the design and development of innovative new solutions. Software Design and Development – The Preliminary Course 168 Chapter 4 SET 4A 1. As a consequence assembler language programs are often written for routines where speed is crucial e.g. Discuss. • A small business that has a unique distribution and invoicing system. Each data item is represented as an arrow or data flow and is labelled with the name of the data item. Microsoft integrated the web into Windows 95 using the ‘Active Desktop’ concept. Explain your answer. (D) Presentation software application. If flash memory is so wonderful then why hasn’t it replaced magnetic and optical storage? At this stage there should be a simple and direct correlation between the hardware/software systems and the conceptual model developed in the high-level design. The Alto is widely recognised as the first computer to include a fully bit-mapped display, including drop down menus and icons. Once the keyboard arrived machine language was entered in hexadecimal, this reduced the volume of data entry significantly. In most cases site licences are used to extend commercial or shareware licences so the software can be used on multiple machines at reduced cost. 5. Floating Point Unit (FPU) – performs Computations with these all non-integer calculations. For light to pass through the entire sandwich requires the liquid crystals to alter the polarity of the light 90 degrees so it Software Design and Development –The Preliminary Course Hardware and Software 67 matches the polarity of the second polarizing panel. Each section is executed in a similar manner to a sequential program. An analysis of the data and how it flows through the system is undertaken. Decode/Prefetch Unit RAM ALU ALU Branch Predictor Floating Point Unit Code Cache Bus Interface A simplified view of a CPU is shown in Fig 2.73. In April 1992, Windows 3.1 was released and sold 3 million copies in less than 2 months. 3. In the HSC course, we examine many of these questions in more detail. Some check boxes behave like option or radio buttons. Many anti-virus packages include a Malware variety of other features. Each design meeting is short, maybe just an hour or so, whilst coding and testing consumes the majority of the development time. (C) backwards converting. Why is this necessary? This DMDs are composed of tilting mirrors. It is almost impossible to intuitively find features necessary for the operation of the software. A context diagram shows the entire system as a single process with all the external inputs and outputs to and from any external entities. The personnel coding the solution are often different to those who plan the solution. In Victoria, the course in the VCE is known as Information Technology: Software Development.. New South Wales HSC Course. (B) input. Most applications we use on computers have been compiled. In actuality the controller detects changes in voltage; as a key is pressed the voltage in that circuit goes from low to high, and similarly when a key is released the voltage returns from high back to low. Develop these needs into a list of requirements that precisely describe the problem to be solved. Do not assume that large commercial packages are perfect; as we shall see in this section many applications built by global software companies include poor user interface elements. This is implemented as part of the fifth prototype. The initial prototype is primarily used to demonstrate the look and feel of the website. The translation process is straightforward as the majority of the commands translate directly into single machine language instructions. Each cell contains a small amount of neon/xenon gas and is coated in red, green or blue phosphors (refer Fig 2.32). Application software sits between the operating system and the users. Let us develop a topdown design to describe the processes involved in this venture. As software development became a commercial endeavour, it became necessary to consider legal methods of protecting the rights of the software developers. Magnetic fields are greatest at the poles. It is similarly unclear what would occur if ignore is selected. These materials are known as hard magnetic materials and are used to produce permanent magnets. Transistors are essentially switches, just like a light switch. What does this mean? Use fonts consistently, there should be some reason for font changes and the reason should be immediately and consistently clear. Software Design and Development: Preliminary Course, 2nd Edition NEW $70.95-+ Add. Of course, Microsoft had been given early versions of the Macintosh to allow them to develop the agreed application packages. List in point form, significant historical events that have influenced the development of today’s search engines. To correct this problem two merge bits are placed between each coded byte; the value of these merge bits is chosen to maintain our at least two zeros but less than ten rule. The aim being to create a set of broad goals for the project. When the video card is embedded as part of the motherboard it is common for some of the systems RAM to be used as VRAM. For many operations the operand will be a memory address rather than the data itself. Instead of angry arguments, … • File compression The ability to compress files is a common task to save storage space or to reduce file size prior to transmission across the Internet. GROUP TASK Discussion Software is different to most other products. The diagram in Fig 2.56 implies an equal number of sectors per track; on old hard disks this was true however on newer hard disks this is not the case, rather the number of sectors increases as the radius of the tracks increase. The experience as a user of the package gives them sufficient knowledge to customise the product to suit their particular needs. Software Design and Development – The Preliminary Course 30 Chapter 1 Ease of use Good user interfaces are easy to use. Copies and modifications can be made without restriction. (A) active RFID. The use of CASE tools is unlikely when using: (A) the structured approach. Software Design and Development –The Preliminary Course Hardware and Software 75 Inkjet technology is used within small point of sale printers right up to large commercial printers, Fig 2.42 shows a large commercial inkjet printer capable of printing on a variety of different materials up to 6 metres wide. The component that performs all noninteger numeric calculations is called the: (A) Register. If the may terminate it at any time by returning the Program and dealer from whom you purchased this package fails to refund Documentation to the Company together with all copies, your money, contact ImageWorks, Inc. immediately. (C) the RAD approach. In actuality, this is probably the first thing we perceive when we meet anybody for the first time. (B) memory management. Let us examine some of the broad categories of presentation software applications: Slideshows Slideshow applications allow a human presenter to display their notes on a large screen during lectures and seminars. (B) converse engineering. • Virus checking Anti-virus software is perhaps the most Virus well known utility in use today. For the prototyping approach to be a success the team of developers should include a variety of skills and is usually of a small size. Screen elements that are logically connected should be grouped together. Most computers are more complex and are able to accommodate different hardware and software functionality. The play and pause buttons appear to be disabled even when a file is loaded. This detail could be a hard disk platter or even a piece of magnetic tape; in each case hard magnetic material is used and the storage principles are the same. This text is one such product. Barbara has decided that she would like to develop a program that stores all the details currently contained in her old address book. 4. pressure increases and a droplet begins to form at Software Design and Development – The Preliminary Course 76 Chapter 2 the nozzle opening. Assume this application was written using an event driven approach. • The scan head is attached to a stabilising bar, and is moved using a stepping motor attached to a belt and pulley system. In summary, when an electrical charge is applied to a plasma substance it gives off light. In fact the liquid crystals used within liquid crystal The molecules within liquid displays (LCDs) arrange themselves in a regular and crystals are in a state between liquids and solids. For custom-built large-scale applications this is often not acceptable and may be replaced by statements limiting the software developer’s liability should a problem occur. This 2nd edition of the book contains 16 chapters. It seems incredible that such a confusing message exists in such a widely used application. Outline the processes performed by a social networking application with which you are familiar. In relation to ergonomics, response time is the time taken for software to respond to some input from the user. Later punched cards were introduced. Software Design and Development – The Preliminary Course 78 • Chapter 2 Speakers Most speakers include similar components as dynamic microphones (refer p61). The hexadecimal system assists us in this regard. 11. GROUP TASK Discussion Choose one of the low-level tasks on the above structure diagram and expand this task into a lower level. As a result these companies make large profits. (D) the prototyping approach. Please note this second edition is for use by students sitting the HSC exam in 2012 and beyond. Fig 2.4 A typical video arcade game console. Reading and translating reflected light into electrical signals There are various different techniques used to create, focus and then collect and convert the reflected light into electrical signals. The problem is that many of the familiar features of all other common software products have been removed for the sake of a clean and apparently realistic look. Minor changes are made to the data entry screens and a provision is added to allow PDF files to be displayed in the generic information section of the website. To execute operating system commands using a CLI the user must be familiar with the required syntax. Software Design and Development –The Preliminary Course Hardware and Software 107 SET 2D 1. GROUP TASK Activity Imagine your class are the system analysts working for Winston Soft. Systems are also composed of a hierarchy of software elements (refer Fig 4.6). An understanding of the inputs and outputs together with their relationships to each other are vital to the accurate definition of the problem and provide a solid basis for commencing the solution. Fig 1.24 Apple’s Quicktime Player 4 ignores The volume control is a rotary dial, similar to the traditional user interface rules. These robots were nicknamed spiders and the name stuck. Flags are data items used to indicate that a certain criterion has been met. So the input to a transistor is an electrical current (or lack of) and the output is also an electrical current (or lack of). All RFID tags include an integrated RFID reader integrated circuit and an antenna (refer Fig 2.16). As the scope of the project is limited each team member is able to have an intimate knowledge of the entire system. On commercially produced disks the pits really are physical indentations within the upper side of the disk. Does your research substantiate ‘Moore’s Law’? A timeline for completion of the project is discussed. You must complete all the topics covered in chapters 1-7. Testing that includes users from the Asian culture, would quickly highlight this difference. The replacement of any medium not meeting Company's assemble, reverse engineer; decompile or otherwise translate 'Limited Warranty' explained above and which is returned to the Program. Notice that control is positioned within the Storage processing function. 0111111111111111 32 bit Integers In most programming languages, the two’s (3276710) complement system is used so both negative and positive integers can be 10000000000000000000000000000000 stored. The designing of the structures that will hold the data generally takes place at which stage of development? (A) End user and Prototyping. 171 • Decimal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Binary 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Hexadecimal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F Fig 4.23 Decimal, binary and hexadecimal equivalents. Software Design and Development –The Preliminary Course Hardware and Software 89 Furthermore, the vibration is worst at the outside of the disk, just where the data passes under the read head at the fastest speed, hence read errors do occur. GROUP TASK Investigation Make a list of all the microphones you see each day. Swishy Fishy, in conjunction with Whoa Websites, decide to progressively create and implement different aspects of their website. However, technologies are changing almost by the minute, which makes the writing task somewhat difficult. A register within the CPU, which holds the result of the last operation performed by the ALU is called: (A) the control unit. For the prototyping approach to be successful, which element may be considered to be the most important? These devices are commonly classified as primary storage and secondary storage or temporary and permanent storage. • The operating system allocates CPU time to the application. Discuss any problems that may arise if this were to occur. The primary function of a structure chart is to create a template in preparation for the creation of the actual source code. User friendly Software that meets the needs of users. Eventually the VisiCalc product was sold to Lotus Corporation. Drives capable of burning data onto recordable disks contain lasers that can operate at two power levels, low power for retrieving and higher power for storing or burning data. Discuss. Multimedia In the early 1960’s, Ted Nelson came up with the idea of documents being linked together in a non-linear fashion. Most LCOS based projectors use two independent polarizing panels. These recommendations are presented to the directors of Slapper Wackers for approval. The inputs are the boiling water, coffee, milk and sugar and the output is the cup of coffee. (C) a driver (D) application software. The team should comprise of those with specialised skills with regard to creativity and design. The integrated circuit within each tag responds by Fig 2.18 transmitting its data to the reader. Software Design and Development – The Preliminary Course 50 Chapter 2 ELEMENTS OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM The five elements present in all computer-based systems Hardare hardware, software, data, procedures and personnel. Why is the quality of products developed using the prototyping approach likely to be lower than similar products developed using the structured approach? The comparator signals the SAR as soon as it detects that the current from the DAC is less than the current in the capacitor. ‘I’d like to be able to print a daily sales summary’. For example, Fred finds that errors occur in many places when one or more students do not have marks entered for particular tasks. • Code executes much faster. GROUP TASK Discussion The functionality to process credit card payments online was outsourced. If Company is unable to deliver a replacement medium archival copy of the Program, in machine readable or printed which conforms to the warranty provided under this form, for back up purposes only in support of your use of the Agreement you may terminate this Agreement by returning Program on a single computer. For instance Microsoft Office includes Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) which is used by programmers to build custom applications. The flat screen at the end of the tube is coated with phosphor. Knowledge and familiarity with software is important if the software we develop is to be consistent with other available products. A plasma screen is composed of a two dimensional grid of cells sandwiched between sheets of glass. In digital systems, this analog electrical energy is converted, using an analog to digital converter (ADC) into a series of digital sound samples. Also tracking problems can occur when the pits or lands are too long, this would occur when a large number of zeros are in sequence. Why do you think this is the case? (C) Correct use of screen elements. How has the discovery and subsequent development of the transistor influenced the nature of computer technologies? (B) data and information. They place active and lean. This is similar to checking the spelling in a written document. The range of technical skills should complement each other. The source code remains on the web server where it is not accessible to users. Such forces move from the north to the south pole of the magnet. A destination for data output from the system is known as a sink. Describe the difficulties you encountered when using these sites. The plasma emits ultraviolet light, which in turn causes the phosphors to glow and emit visible light. Large diameter diaphragms coupled with coils that are able to move in and out over a larger range are suited to low frequencies (0Hz to about 500Hz). Although this will free up space on the hard drive, it is not recommended as the extra time taken to decompress each file results in poor system performance. First the initial problem is defined and a prototype created. • Font dialogue in Microsoft Word. The control unit makes sense of each instruction it receives and directs the ALU to perform the appropriate process. The processes and raw materials required make copying a difficult, impractical and expensive proposition. GROUP TASK Discussion Explain the warranty and liability provisions contained within the licence agreement. Full colour images are formed using the CMYK or four colour process system. Lisp, APL and Haskell are examples of: (A) traditional languages. Archie-Like Indexing of the Web (ALIWEB) and Excite. 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